According to recent study results, in most patients with treatment-resistant depression, deep brain stimulation of subcallosal cingulate white matter produced antidepressant effects. Helen S. Mayberg, MD, neurology professor at Mount Sinai’s Icahn School of Medicine and her colleagues stated that subcallosal cingulate DBS has been studied since 2005 as a potential treatment for extreme or extremely refractory major depression. Results from small, open-label studies involving 193 participants showed a response rate of about 50 percent to 60 percent for this treatment, as well as remission rates of 30 percent to 40 percent for the same period. Nearly 75% of participants fulfilled the therapy-response criteria for more than half of their research attendance, and from the first year onwards 21% of all participants displayed a consistent answer to therapy. The authors generally considered the DBS protocol healthy and well-tolerated, with no acute or chronic stimulus adverse events. Health and surgical complication rates are comparable with those found for other conditions in DBS research, and there were no suicides.