Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an ocular condition that can get worse over time. It is the leading cause of serious, permanent loss of vision in persons over 60 years old. This occurs when the tiny central part of the retina, called the macula deteriorates. The retina is the nerve tissue that detects light at the back of the body. It’s also called age-related macular degeneration because the condition occurs when you grow older. For AMD you lose your vision in the center. You can not see fine details, whether you are looking near or far away at it. But your vision at the peripheral (side) will still be normal. Suppose, for starters, that you are looking at a hands-on clock. With AMD, you may see the numbers of the clock but not the hands.

There are two types of age-related macular degeneration: Wet macular degeneration and dry macular degeneration. 

Dry form- People with this can get yellow deposits in their macula, called drusen. A few little drusen do not trigger your vision to change. But as they grow larger and more numerous, they can dim or distort your vision, especially when you read. When the situation gets worse, the macula’s light-sensitive cells get smaller, and finally, die. You have blind spots in the middle of your vision, in the atrophic type. When it gets worse, you can lose vision in the center.

Wet form- Blood vessels expand below your macula. Blood and fluid flow through the retina via these blood vessels. It distorts the vision so that straight lines appear wavy. You may also have blind spots and central vision impairment. Such blood vessels and their bleeding eventually form a scar which leads to permanent central vision loss.

Symptoms of macular degeneration include Worse or less clear vision. Your vision might be blurry, and it may be hard to read fine print or drive. Dark, blurry areas in the center of your vision, Rarely, worse or different color perception. Age-related Macular degeneration may have something to do with your genes. When anyone does have it in your family, the risk will be higher. Other risk factors include smoking, having high blood pressure or high cholesterol, obesity, eating tons of saturated fat, being light-skinned, being female, and having a light eye color. A regular eye exam can detect macular degeneration related to aging. The doctor may even ask you to look at an Amsler chart, a straight line pattern that resembles a checkerboard. Many of the straight lines may seem wavy to you, or you might find a couple of the missing lines. Signs of macular degeneration may be such.

There’s no cure for macular degeneration. Treatment may slow it down or keep you from losing too much of your vision. Your options might include Anti-angiogenesis drugs, Laser therapy, Photodynamic laser therapy, Low vision aids. Researchers are studying new treatments for macular degeneration, but they are experimental. They include Submacular surgery and Retinal translocation.