Genomic information has proven crucial in recognizing hereditary diseases, characterizing the mutations that drive cancer progression, and monitor disease outbreaks in the past years. With today’s sequencers, steadily declining sequencing costs and the ability to generate vast quantities of data allow genome sequencing a powerful genomics research method for cancer detection and many other causes. Also the versatile, modular nature of next-generation sequencing ( NGS) technology makes it equally useful for sequencing any organisms, such as animals, plants, or disease-related microbes of agricultural significance.

Recent cancer studies have shown that cancer-causing genomic mutations can happen years, or even decades before a patient is diagnosed for oesophageal cancer. To determine whether a patient has a high or low risk of developing esophageal cancer, researchers have developed a statistical model that analyses genomic data. The findings could allow early detection and facilitate the potential treatment of oesophageal cancer.

The Human Cancer Genome Project (HCGP) is one of the significant initiatives to accelerate cancer detection by genome sequencing. The aim of the project is to obtain a detailed explanation of human cancer’s genetic basis. In particular, the purpose of the project will be to define and classify all the genomic modification points associated with all the main forms of cancers at considerable frequency.  A thorough understanding of the genetic basis of cancer will provide a permanent basis for all future cancer research which will have far-reaching consequences for fundamental, clinical, and commercial efforts to understand cancer, avoid and treat it. It has the power to report the cancer subtypes and it will extensively find the cellular pathways that are deranged in each subtype described. This will raise the amount of study efficacy for understanding the initiation and progression of tumors, vulnerability to carcinogenic, production of cancer therapeutics, methods for early tumor detection, and clinical design trials.