India is known for a lot of good things but diabetes is definitely not one of them. Now we all know how diabetes is basically is a disease that occurs when the blood glucose or blood sugar of a person is too high and it affects, an approximate of 285 million people worldwide. What is even more shocking is that this number is expected to increase almost twofold to 439 million by 2030, according to the International Diabetes Federation. In India, approximately 69 million people are affected by diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is a disease that comes with an onset of various and some of the complications arising with diabetes are diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinal neurodegeneration and these diseases have their own set of other illnesses that affect the patient once they manifest.

Microvascular and Macrovascular complications

Because diabetes comes with a string of affiliated diseases, the complications arising with diabetes affect the blood vessels. This has an effect on the blood flow and can also lead to the formation of a blood clot. Damage caused to small blood vessels is called Microvascular complications while the damage to larger blood vessels is called macrovascular complications.

There are parts of the body like the legs and feet that are affected by both microvascular and macrovascular complications. Early recognition of diabetic retinopathy or maculopathy prior to a cataract surgery influences the visual concluding outcome of it and also helps the surgeon make more informed perioperative decision-making. Microvascular complications are seen commonly in the eye, kidney and other organs comprising of smaller blood vessels while more major organs like the heart which frequently leads to death or disability in patients due to amputations.

Why do these complications arise in the first place?

It is important to understand that diabetes today is seen among young adults as well. Previously, it was majorly a disease of the aged but that changed due to the rising levels of obesity, smoking, high consumption of sugar and an overall unsound lifestyle. There is immense research that can aid the management of diabetes in older adults, however, the same cannot be said for the treatment of diabetes in the young. Economic factors like insurance coverage, expensive insulin, and variations in newer medications have increased the complications.

What can be done?

While there is evidently no specific way to reduce these complications, the risk of them can go down if efforts are taken by both the physician and patient. Controlling the consumption of blood sugar, making healthier choices and regular screening for nerve, eye, kidney, and heart linked diseases. There is a need for more research on this subject matter. Solutions can be found only if the problem is properly understood.