Global healthcare has a great impact on the global community. Today the entire world is facing some major health issues which are a major challenge for governments and healthcare organizations. Overall, death rates from non-communicable causes including heart disease, stroke, and accidents are rising. At the same time, deaths from infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and diseases preventable by vaccines are that. Most developing countries now face a “dual burden” of disease: they will seek to prevent and control infectious diseases while addressing non-communicable disease-related health hazards and environmental health risks. As social and economic conditions change in developing countries and their health and surveillance systems improve, more attention will be needed to address non-communicable diseases, mental health, substance abuse disorders and, in particular, injuries.
It is very important to address these threats and issues which in the future can be the reason for the imbalance in global healthcare. In January 2019, WHO announced the ten major threats that will cause havoc in global healthcare. WHO also formulated a new 5-year strategic plan – the 13th General Programme of Work. This plan focuses on a triple billion target: ensuring 1 billion more people benefit from access to universal health coverage, 1 billion more people are protected from health emergencies and 1 billion more people enjoy better health and well-being. Reaching this goal will require addressing the threats to health from a variety of angles.
WHO says that achieving the target would include tackling the major threats, which are:
- Air Pollution and climate change
In 2019, WHO found air pollution to be the biggest environmental health threat, with nine out of ten people breathing every day in polluted air. Microscopic air pollutants that penetrate the respiratory and circulatory systems are the primary cause of air pollution, damaging the lungs, heart, and brain, killing nearly seven million people every year from stroke, heart and lung disease. Pollution is also a contributor to climate change majorly affects global healthcare. Climate change is expected to increase the incidence of malnutrition, measles, diarrhea, and heat stress, resulting in 250,000 deaths annually from 2030 to 2050.
- Noncommunicable diseases
Many noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and heart disease are the reason for the death of over 41 million that is 70% of people worldwide. Those deaths encompass 15 million premature deaths that largely occur in low- and middle-income countries. The top five main risk factors that are surging the rise of these diseases are tobacco use, physical inactivity, the harmful use of alcohol, unhealthy diets, and air pollution.
- Global Influenza pandemic
The world will face another influenza pandemic but are expects are yet to provide us with the information about when it will hit and how severe it is going to be. WHOis working with many major players to ensure effective and equitable access to diagnostics, vaccines, and antivirals, especially in developing countries.
- Fragile and vulnerable settings
More than 22% of the world’s population lives in precarious settings, defined as places where access to basic health care is minimal, often due to a state of crisis and poor health services. These places become vulnerable to poor health conditions due to prolonged crises, such as famine, conflict, population displacement, and drought. The child and maternal health still remain a challenge and unmet in these regions. Awareness about this issue is important to improve global healthcare.
- Antimicrobial resistance
Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi to resist medicines such as antibiotics, antivirals, and antimalarials. The main cause of drug resistance is the overuse of antimicrobials in people, but also in animals, especially those used for food production, as well as in the environment. This issue threatens us to return to a time when infections such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, and salmonellosis could not be easily treated. The inability to prevent infections could seriously jeopardize surgery and procedures like chemotherapy.
- Ebola and other high-threat pathogens
The R&D Blueprint and WHO describes diseases and pathogens that may trigger an emergency in public health but lack effective treatments and vaccines. The priority research and development watch list includes Ebola, several other hemorrhagic fevers, Zika, Nipah, Coronavirus Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) in the Middle East and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and X disease.
- Weak primary health care
The ideal primary health care strives to provide comprehensive, affordable, community-based care. But many countries, mostly low or middle-income countries, fail to adhere to these standards due to lack of resources or focus on a single disease program. In order to achieve universal health coverage, health systems with strong primary health care are required.
- Vaccine hesitancy
Vaccination is one of the most expense-effective ways of avoiding disease, it actually eliminates 2-3 million deaths a year, and potentially it can prevent 1.5 million more if global vaccine coverage increases. Despite being “one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent disease,” the WHO notes that more and more patients are challenging the safety and necessity of vaccinations — a trend that could reverse the progress made by the medical community in reducing the prevalence of preventable diseases. Many people nowadays refuse to opt for vaccines due to a variety of reasons such as complacency, inconvenience in accessing vaccines, and lack of confidence. Health workers, especially those in communities, remain the most trusted vaccination advisor and influencer and need to be supported in providing trusted, credible information on vaccines
- Dengue and HIV
The rainy season is the time when the danger of dengue occurs, and in recent times, this season is lengthening in many countries. An approximate 40% of the world is at risk of dengue fever and about 390 million infections are recorded annually. The Dengue management plan of the WHO is aimed at reducing deaths by 50% by 2020.
Twenty-two million people living with HIV are on treatment regimens after antiretroviral therapy was implemented. Nevertheless, some of the people most affected by the disease have no access to affordable care. Currently, according to WHO, 37 million people worldwide are living with HIV and one million people die each year from HIV / AIDS. Often, however, populations considered at high risk of contracting the disease, such as sex workers, transgender people, men who have sex with men and people in jail, are excluded from life-saving health services.